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Ward No. 6
NAME OF PANCHYAT:MADAN RAI|
WARD NAME: UPPER DETHANG
TOTAL NO. OF HOUSEHOLD: 93
The Upper Deythang Village at a Glance) The village of Upper Deythang is under Barfung Jarrong Gram Panchayat GPU. In the north, the village shares border with Upper Ralong Ward, in the east with Upper Barfung Ward, in the south with Aneythang and in the west with Lower Deythang. It is seven kilometers away from Ravangla.
The village Upper Deythang consists of 131 households having total population of 497. The inhabitants follow diverse religions like Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity. There are Rai, Sherpa, Bhujel, Chettri, Thami, Sunar and Bhutia communities in the village. They speak common language, that is, Nepali. They have good discipline and enjoy harmonious social and cultural life. Out of 131households, only 31 households are engaged in SHG movement so far. Tribal households constitute about 10 percent of the total households. The village has varying geo-climatic conditions namely, small plains, forests, hills and inaccessible areas.
Historical Background Shifting cultivation was common in early days. The people slowly settled and started livelihood activities like cattle rearing and jhum cultivation. Later on, they converted from terrace farming to terrace farming. They came to realize the value of education and wanted to educate their children. Difficult terrain and inclement weather made it impossible for them to send their children to school located at far away. At the same time, they could not provide infrastructure for education at local level. But still, their enthusiasm for education remained the same. As a result, the village boasts of school of secondary level at present.
PRA OBJECTIVES & PROCESSESS Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a way of learning from and with villagers to investigate, analyze and evaluate their constraints and opportunities and help them to take decisions and actions. This method has flexibility and adaptability in addition to quickness and accuracy. It encourages people’s participation and requires respect for community members and their interest, patience, humility and listening. It involves a set of principles, a process of communication and a menu of methods for seeking villagers’ participation in putting forward their points of view about any issue and enabling them do their own analysis with a view to make use of such learning. It initiates a participatory process and sustains it.
A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercise was conducted on 13th and 14th August 2014 in Upper Deythang village of Ravangla Block, South District, Sikkim to analyze the perceptions, capabilities and experiences of the people living in that village. The findings of PRA will help in preparation of systematic and specific plans of action for the near future. The main objectives of the exercise were to:
1. Document the village in terms of resource and social structure. 2. To identify the gaps and challenges that exist at the village. 3. To evaluate the manifold necessities, priorities and opportunities available at the village. The PRA exercise which was conducted involved local villagers and the resource persons who facilitated the PRA exercise. The tools used were participatory observations, semi-structured interviews, mappings, trend analysis, seasonal review, Focus Group Discussion on problems faced by the villagers and their possible solutions etc. This PRA approach was particularly useful as it enabled the vulnerable/weak groups in that rural community to have a voice and impart their views on various issues that they have been confronting in their daily life.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was mainly conducted at Mahila Mandal Samaj Ghar of Upper Deythang. In each PRA technique the people were informed about the objectives and purposes of the methods.
The main objectives of PRA are:- a. To find out the social structure and available resources of the village. b. To find out the time and energy spent by both men and women daily and yearly. c. To find out the problems and suitable solutions within the village. PRA techniques enabled the villagers especially the vulnerable and the illiterate groups to have a voice and impart their views on various issues that they have been confronting in their daily life. Tools like Participatory Group Discussion, Mapping, Interaction, Daily Activity Analysis etc. were applied throughout the exercise.
THE METHODOLOGY The villagers of Upper Deythang were informed about the need of the PRA and its processes and dates for exercises were fixed jointly. Following are the PRA tools which were exercised in the field. The team members involved at the exercised can also be referred from the table. Some important devices that were utilized during the exercise were (a) charts, (b) full scape papers, (c) colored pens, (d) colored papers, (e) colored powder; (f) open ground, (g) notebooks etc.
Transact walk: A transact walk was carried out with a mixed group of villagers on 13th August to assess the current situation of the village which helped in taking an overview of total land area of the community through a specific path. The transect walk carried out observed vegetative cover, land use pattern, problems, coping strategies and opportunities, among others. The team comprised of seven members who were divided into two groups and started the walk from Eco-friendly Park. One group passed through the middle part and another group passed through passed through the lower part of the village, making observations and asking questions throughout.
Social Mapping: It was carried out to present the information on village layout, Social institution, Social infrastructure, Social composition & demography, Occupational & unemployment status etc. language-religion-culture groups, health, wealth, and other, etc. This provides an overview of the socio-economic aspects of the village. While drawing the map discussion was carried out about female headed household and the wealth category of them. A total number of two villagers participated in the mapping process including ward panchayat. During the exercise, the total household numbers of the village were discussed and asked whether the household numbers are shrinking or increasing. The participants were also asked to show institutions, buildings and places that offer some kind of social service or which were popular spots to meet and discuss and a Historical Heritage site too.
Resource Mapping was drawn by the villagers who knew well about their land areas. A total number of three participants was involved in the process. This map indicated all potential resource areas especially for agriculture and its related activities available to this community. While drawing the map discussion was carried out about the major resource available at the village, and what were the scarce resources, accessibility of the community including poor and women to the resources etc. some major information regarding the resources and so on.
Wealth Ranking was another PRA tool that was exercised at Upper Deythang village. By this tool, the local indicators and criteria of wealth were identified and helped the project to understand the perceptions of wealth differences and inequalities in a community with the reference from the participants. The community was asked to use the local village criteria to define the wealth categories of the village namely Rich, Medium, Poor and Poorest of the poor. A number of key informants who knew the village and its inhabitants very well were asked to help in sorting out the households as per the wealth categories in the community. Listing out local criteria and indicators in the ranking discussion. Apart from this, Focus Group Discussion was held to categorize all the Households of the villages based on the socio-economic conditions, life styles etc.
Problem analysis: This tool was carried out on 13th August. All villagers including women participated in this exercise. Through this tool, the major gaps and constrains that prevailed at the village were identified. Thereafter, ranking was done and probable solution to this existing problem was discussed.
Gender Analysis: This tool illustrated all of the different kinds of activities carried out in one day which was useful for looking at relative work-loads between different gender groups in the community. Comparisons between clocks show who works the longest hours, who concentrates on a few activities and who does a number of tasks in a day, and who has the most leisure time and sleeping hour. Separate focus groups of men and women were organized for this tool. People from different socio-economic groups were included in each group.
RELIGION HOUSEHOLDS WISE