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Ward No. 4
NAME OF PANCHYAT: KARNA BAHADUR RAI |
WARD NAME: JARUNG
(The Jarrong Village at a glance) The village chosen for the PRA activity was Jarrong under Barfung Jarrong GPU of Ravangla Block South District. A village crowned in the mountain top of the Himalayan Regions. The great altitude of the village provides an awesome view as one looks down into the valleys and the river flowing several feet down the village Samsing is in its south, Lower Ralong the north, Bering Ward in the east and West Sikkim in west of the village. It is located 25 Kilometers away from Ravangla. Most of the houses in the ward are widely scattered. The village is inhabited by Nepali community and under there are different sub communities like Bhujel, Rai, Chettri, Kami, Gurung, Darjee. There are 99 households in the village with 485 populations. People from this village are mostly dependent on agricultural products. The educational institutes available in the village are 1 ICDS which is situated in the upper part of the village, along with 2 Church etc.
Historical Background Historically communities of the Jarrong village engaged in hunting and fishing for their livelihood. A forested area was cleared for agriculture by cutting down the trees and setting them on fire. The ash was said to add to the fertility of the soil. This land is then intensively cultivated for still today so, the villagersstill practicing the totally traditional farming such as wet terrace and maize cultivation. They used to fetching of water from the Samruk river.
PRA OBJECTIVES & PROCESSESS Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a way of learning from and with villagers to investigate, analyze and evaluate their constraints and opportunities and help them to take decisions and actions. This method has flexibility and adaptability in addition to quickness and accuracy. It encourages people’s participation and requires respect for community members and their interest, patience, humility and listening. It involves a set of principles, a process of communication and a menu of methods for seeking villagers’ participation in putting forward their points of view about any issue and enabling them do their own analysis with a view to make use of such learning. It initiates a participatory process and sustains it.
A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercise was conducted on to 15th& 16THSep 2014 in Jarrong under Barfung Jarrong GPU of Ravangla Block South District, Sikkim, to analyze the perceptions, capabilities and experiences of the people living in that village. The findings of PRA will help in preparation of systematic and specific plans of action for the near future. The main objectives of the exercise were to:
1. Document the village in terms of resource and social structure 2. To identify the gaps and challenges that exist at the village 3. To evaluate the manifold needs , priorities and opportunities available at the village 4. To find out the social structure and available resources of the village. 5. To find out the time and energy spend by both men and women daily and yearly. 6. To find out the problems and suitable solution within the village.
The PRA exercise which was conducted involved local villagers and the resource persons who were facilitating the PRA exercise. The tools used were participatory observations, semi-structured interviews, mappings, trend analysis, seasonal review, Focus Group Discussion, problems faced by the villagers and their possible solutions etc. This PRA approach was particularly useful as it enabled the vulnerable/weak groups in that rural community to have a voice and impart their views on various issues that they have been confronting in their daily life. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was mainly conducted at the suitable place like community hall and nearby suitable places and houses. In each PRA technique the people were informed about the objectives and purposes of the method
PRA techniques enabled the villagers especially the vulnerable and the illiterate groups to have a voice and impart their views on various issues that they have been confronting in their daily life. Tools like Participatory Group Discussion, Mapping, Interaction, Daily Activity Analysis etc. were implied throughout the exercise
THE METHODOLOGY The villagers of Jarrong were informed about the need and its importance of the PRA and its processes and fixed the dates for exercises jointly. Following are the PRA tools which were exercised in the field. The team members involved at the exercised can also be referred from the table. Some important devices that were utilized during the exercise were a) Charts. b) Full scale paper c) colored pen d) colored papers, e) Open space, f) notebooks etc.
Transact walk: A transact walk was carried out with a mixed group of villagers on 15th SEP to 16th SEP 2014. Assess the current situation of the village which helps in taking an overview of total land area of the community through a specific path. The transect walk carried out observed vegetative cover, husbandry, land use pattern, problems, copping strategies and opportunities, among others. The team comprised of 04 members and started the walks from the edge of the community land, passed through the village to terminate at its core, making observations and asking questions throughout.
Social Mapping: It was carried out to present the information on village layout, Social institution, Social infrastructure, Social composition & demography, Occupational & unemployment status etc. language-religion-culture groups, health, wealth, and other, etc. This provides an overview of the socio-economic aspects of the village. While drawing the map discussion was carried out about female headed household and the wealth category of them. A total no. of 11 villagers participated in the mapping process including women. During the exercise, the total house hold number of the village were discussed and asked whether the household number are shrinking or increasing. The participants were also asked to show institutions, buildings and places that offer some kind of social service. The group of participants was encouraged to discus and show on the map which different ethnic groups as well as the different religious groups were living in the Bering Village’s common symbol was used to mark those households in which the minority ethnic groups live. During the mapping process, the women headed households were also marked.
Resource Mapping was drawn in the floor of Parsu Rai respectively with the help of villagers. A total no. of 11 participants was involved in the process. This map indicatedall potential resource areas especially for agriculture and its related activities available to this community. While drawing the map discussion was carried out about the major resource available at the village, its scares resources accessibility of the community including poor and women to the resources etc. and such other crucial in formations regarding the resources in the village.
Wealth Ranking was used to know the local indicators and criteria of wealth and wellbeing and was identified and helped the project to understand the perceptions of wealth differences and inequalities in a community with the reference from the participants. The community was asked focus the local village criteria to define the wealth categories of the village namely rich, medium, poor and poorest of the poor. It was also to map the relative position of households in a community wealth wise. A number of key informants who knew the village and its inhabitants very well were asked to help in shoring out the households as per the wealth categories in the community. Listing out local criteria and indicators derived from the ranking discussion. A part from this Focus Group Discussion was held to categorize all the Households of the villages based on the socio-economic conditions, life styles etc.
Problem analysis: This tool was carried out on 15thSEP. A total of 30 villagers including women participated in this exercise. Through this tool the major gaps and constrains that prevailed at the village was identified there after ranking was done and discussed about the probable solution to this existing problem.
Seasonal Calendar: This PRA tool was mainly used to learn about changes in livelihoods over the year and to show the seasonality of agricultural and non-agricultural workload, food availability and scarcity. Women’s diseases, gender specific income and expenditure water forage credit and holidays the calendar was drawn on the big sheet of paper with the help of the community. Various locally available materials like dry leaves rocks seeds dry twigs etc. were used to draw the calendar. The process was facilitated by discussing various questions like walk plans in all seasons throughout the year and availability and scarcity of food over the year.
Resource Inflow and outflow: This tool identifies resources that are coming in and going out of the village. This technique is useful for finding out the resources and products that are sold outside the village and others that are brought in from other villages. Also it helps in identification of various products that have potential for value additions etc. of the village. Most of the agricultural products are produced during the rainy seasons from June to August. Food availability is good during this month’s as water is available. Garlic, Ginger, Maize and coriander as produced as well as consumed by the villagers they sell the surplus produced in local markets like RavanglaandLegship. The resources became scares during the winter months from November to January, when rainfall is low or no rainfall at all. The villagers have to depend on outside market for Rice Potato and other foods.
Gender Analysis: This tool illustrated all of the different kinds of activities carried out in one day which was useful for looking at relative work-loads between different gender groups in the community. Comparisons between clocks show who works the longest hours, who concentrates on a few activities and who does a number of tasks in a day, and who has the most leisure time and sleeping hour. Separate focus groups of men and women were organized for this tool. People from different socio-economic groups were included in each group
TOTAL NO. OF IAY,MMAY,CMRHM,RED-RH 26 NOS
ILLUSTRATION OF SOCIAL COMPOSITION(Household Wise)